Observe how, in the opening pages of his novel The Magicians, Lev Grossman uses the protag's physical size coupled with his corresponding posture to portray his view on life:
Quentin was thin and tall, though he habitually hunched his shoulders in a vain attempt to brace himself against whatever blow was coming from the heavens, and which would logically hit the tall people first.
We are writers. We have to show our readers the basics of setting: time, place, weather, etc. What's better is to crawl inside our character's bodies and let them experience the setting, thus revealing setting and character.it
The low gray sky threatened snow. It seemed to Quentin like the world was offering up special little tableaux of misery just for him: crows perched on power lines, stepped-in dog shit, windblown trash, the corpses of innumerable wet oak leaves being desecrated in innumerable ways by innumerable vehicles and pedestrians.
Notice Grossman's word choice: threatened, misery, shit, corpses, desecrated. Also, his strikingly apt repetition of the word innumerable.
The images are both visual and visceral since it is impossible to see "stepped-in dog shit" and not recall a time when we have, indeed, stepped in dog shit. Also, what more could possibly happen to a fall oak leaf?
A few lines later, the narrative moves closer into the protag's psyche, but it still connected to the setting:
Quentin felt cold all the time, like he was trapped in his own private individual winter.
A few lines after that, and the narrative takes us into the protag's very heart:
...Quentin knew he wasn't happy. Why not? He had painstakingly assembled all the ingredients of happiness. He had performed all the necessary rituals, spoken the words, lit the candles, made the sacrifices. But happiness, like a disobedient spirit, refused to come. He couldn't think what else to do.
Now, Grossman has set up the story's chief internal conflict: Quentin versus himself in his pursuit of happiness. Such a simple-sounding conflict, isn't it? What I'm taking from that is that a simple conflict, skillfully and originally rendered, is all you need.
Allow your character to experience a specific kind of weather. How does he/she internalize external conditions? How does he/she pass these conditions through the filter of his/her innermost fears, frustrations, and desires?